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Article Specs

VxAcct: 230739

Article ID: 8555

Section: whs

Age Group: Adult

Posted: July 3rd. 2004

Views: 21772

Symbols (A-B)

by Kerr Cuhulain

Abracadabra:

On the Demonbusters web site they tell us that the two most common "spells or charm works having magical import and which are familiar to everyone are: Abracadabra and Hocus-pocus."[7] Abracadabra appears in the Colorado Bureau of Investigations Questioned Documents Occult Guide. A Pennsylvania State Police Missing Persons Bulletin, "Satanism: The Law Enforcement Response", lists the word "Markos" with the cryptic one word definition "Abracadabra."[8] In Thomas Carder's ChildCare Action Project/Christian Analysis of American Culture web site, Abracadabra is described as "A somewhat obscure term but still might be an indication of interest in witchcraft, satanism, or the occult, especially when the term is oriented atop itself with one letter removed in progression as shown."[9]

In the over three decades that I have been studying occult symbolism I have never encountered the term "Markos", but I have repeatedly encountered "Abracadabra". Abracadabra is probably the most well known magical name, originally written as a triangular talisman:

ABRACADABRA
ABRACADABR
ABRACADAB
ABRACADA
ABRACAD
ABRACA
ABRAC
ABRA
ABR
AB
A


Abracadabra was in use as far back as the reign of the emperor Severus, noted in the Carmen de Morbis et Remediis of Q. Serenus Samonicus. Some hold that it is a variant of the magical name Abraxas (Abraxas is a Greek word whose letters, expressed as numerals, express the number 365, the number of days in the year). Others hold that it is derived from the Scottish Gaelic terms "abra" ("God") and "cad" ("holy") It appeared as a name of the Judeo Christian God used in a consecration of the ritual sword in the grimoire called the Grimorium Verum. It is a name used in the consecration of the ritual sword in the Greater Key of Solomon. It is described by Eliphas Levi as name which is the basis of a "magic triangle of pagan theosophists" which supposedly represented the sum of all magic in the world in his Transcendental Magic. It is a name word reported to be used in healing in Barrett's The Magus.

Agrippa:

In Schemes of Satan, Michael Warnke defines an Agrippa as: "A grimoire written in black or purple pages, and shaped like a man".[10]This same definition later found it's way into Sgt. Edwin C. Anderson's Law Enforcement Guide to Occult Related Crime."[11] There is no such thing as a human shaped book called an "agrippa". Agrippa, or more correctly Henry Cornelius Agrippa, was an alchemist and philosopher who lived from 1486-1535. He was a counsellor to the Emperor of Germany and a judge of the Prerogative Court. The reason that his name is connected to a book here is probably because Agrippa was the author of three well known books of philosophy and was purported to be the author of another "long lost" book. Predictably, this "lost book" was called The Fourth Book of Cornelius Agrippa. Agrippa did not write the fourth book, a grimoire of magic. It was written by some unknown author who gave it this name to lend it credibility that it did not deserve. It is still possible to obtain copies of this "fourth book" in metaphysical book stores, but it is a regular book, and not shaped like a man.

Altar:

In Mystery Mark of the New Age, Texe Marr claims that "so-called underground 'Christian' churches in the USA and Great Britain [are] now performing unholy satanic black masses, with naked women draped over the altars."[12] One finds this theme of naked women on altars repeated throughout the literature of Satanic Conspiracy myth supporters. In their Handbook of Today's Religions: Understanding the Occult, Christian co-authors McDowell and Stewart claim that:

"When a witch is initiated she is symbolically 'sacrificed' to the sun god, and this ceremony takes place while she is lying naked on the altar. The power of the witch is said to be heightened by the mysterious force that is within her own body, and when clothing is worn that power is supposedly obstructed. Their delusion is that they will gain pleasure and enjoyment in this world, especially of a sensual nature and that in a coming age Satan will overcome the Christian's God and return to the heaven from which he was once thrown out."[13]

Wiccan initiations do not involve human sacrifices, symbolic or otherwise. Nor is anyone required to lie naked on altars in Wiccan ritual. The remark about the "mysterious force" being unable to pass through clothing is interesting, since this would mean that "Witches" of the sort described by McDowell and Stewart would be unable to curse or cast a spell on another person unless that person were unclothed.

Eventually this concept worked it's way into police manuals on "occult crime". Retired police captain Dale Griffis handed out a list of terms "used by occultic groups" at one of his lectures in 1989 which defined an altar as: "Often depicted as a naked lady between two black candles." In the "Ritual Paraphernalia" section of Lt. Norman Michell's Hidden Practices, he defines altars as slabs of stone with naked females on them. Mitchell then goes on to say: "If a female is performing the ritual alone, no woman need be used for the altar."[14]

An altar is a table, stone, or other surface used in rituals on which the ritual tools are placed. Originally it was thought that this derived from the Latin word "altus" ("high"), but this is no longer generally accepted. This word first appeared in Old English around 1000 CE. It came from the Latin "altaria" and "altare", which in turn came from the Sanskrit "alata-m" ("firebrand"). Its root word is the Indo-European "al" ("burn"). This is in reference to the candles or offerings found burning on an altar.

Most of the folklore about altars originates in Ceremonial Magick. In John Dee's Enochian system of magic the altar was called the "holy table" or "table of practice." The altar used by the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn is black, symbolizing their intention to separate the Philosophic Gold from Matter, whose symbol is the black dragon. The Golden Dawn used the symbol of the Altar of Burnt Offering to represent the Qlippoth or Evil.

In Wiccan ritual the altar is normally situated slightly north of the center of the circle. Neither Ceremonial magicians nor Wiccans require naked women to lay on their altars during ritual. It is in Satanic ritual, as described by Anton LaVey, that a nude woman is placed upon the altar, which is situated in the west. Ordinarily she lies with her head toward the south and her feet toward the north.

Amulet:

In a list of terms borrowed from Ritualistic Crime Consultants in his Texas Ritualitic Crime Information Network Occult Crime Manual, Sloat defines "amulet" as "A necklace worn with a symbol representing an individual or cult. Sometimes, there is power if the amulet was handed down."[15]The term "amulet" in English was taken from a French word, "amulette." It comes from the Latin "amulleto" ("a charm"). Wiccan author Doreen Valiente speculated that it "is probably derived from the Latin amiolor, meaning 'I repel, or drive away'."[16] An amulet could be a necklace, but it could be a lot of other different objects as well. Amulets may have a symbol on them representing a particular entity or individual, but they do not have symbols on them representing a particular "cult." What Sloat or his sources mean by the last sentence is anyone's guess.

Anarchy/Anti Justice Symbol:

The letter "A" within a circle is a symbol often described by Christian "experts" as an "anarchy symbol" or an "anti-justice symbol". For example, The anarchy symbol, described as an "A symbol" is listed as a "Demonic Symbol" on the Madrak's Demonbusters web site.[17] Warnke, in Schemes of Satan, defines it as: "Anti Justice Symbol: This symbol was actually meant by those who used it in the 'Ban-the-Bomb' movement... to symbolize a circle of containment around an atomic missile."[18] The accompanying diagram is of a capital letter "A" in a circle. On the next page Warnke depicts a letter A with an elongated horizontal cross bar and labels this an "anarchy symbol". John Frattarola, in his America's Best Kept Secret, claims that "The symbol of 'anarchy' represents the abolition of all law. Initially, those into 'punk' music used this symbol, but it is now widely used by Heavy Metal followers."[19] Note how Frattarola has brought the myth about the Satanic influence of rock music that I discussed in an earlier article in the Witch Hunts series into this definition.

Ultimately the anarchy symbol made it into police manuals. In Sergeant Anderson's manual it is defined as "Anarchy: Denial of authority".[20] In Dubois's Occult Crime, it appears as "Anarchy Sign".[21] It appears upside down in the Appendix of Johnston's The Edge of Evil.[22]

According to Peter Marshall the "circled-A" represents Proudhon's maxim "Anarchy is Order."[23] Peter Peterson also adds that the circle is "a symbol of unity and determination" which "lends support to the off-proclaimed idea of international anarchist solidarity."[24] It is not clear when this symbol was first used as a symbol of anarchists. On November 25 1956, at its foundation in Brussels, the Alliance Ouvriere Anarchiste (AOA) adopted this symbol. Going even further, a BBC documentary on the Spanish Civil War shows an anarchist militia member with a "circled-A" clearly on the back of his helmet.[25] According to Peter Marshall, "[i]n 1964 a French group, Jeunesse Libertaire, gave new impetus to Proudhon's slogan 'Anarchy is Order' by creating the circled-A a symbol which quickly proliferated throughout the world."[26] Today the circled-letter "A" is one of the most successful images in the whole field of political symbolism. Its "incredible simplicity and directness led [it] to become the accepted symbol of the restrengthened anarchist movement after the revolt of 1968" particularly as in many, if not most, of the world's languages the word for anarchy begins with the letter A.[27]

Ancient Ones:

Ancient Ones is a term which frequently shows up in "occult crime manuals" as either:

  • "The officiating priestess at a Black Mass".[28]

  • "The officiating priestess at a Black Mass is sometimes known as 'the ancient one' regardless of her age."[29]

    In the Hebrew Qabbalah, Chesed or Gedulah, the seventh Sephiroth on the "Tree of Life," represents the sphere of the "Ancient Ones", associated with order and building. In the Necronomicon, a well known hoax based on Babylonian and Assyrian myth, the "Ancient Ones" are a race, representing darkness and/or evil, which strives to escape from their world and plague man. According to the Necronomicon, (which I will discuss in detail later) the leader of the ancient ones is Cthulhu. The term "Ancient Ones" isn't a person's title in any of these cases. In fact there is no such title in any Wicca or Satanic ritual that I am aware of.

    Ankh:

    The ankh is often misrepresented as a Satanic symbol in books on "the occult" written by some Christian authors, probably because they interpret the sexuality and immortality that it represents as Satanic. In some cases, such as Rapacki's Satanism: The Not So New Problem, the ankh is correctly defined but placed on a list labeled "Definitions of Satanic Terms".[30] In most, the ankh is incorrectly defined. The following are typical examples of such faulty definitions:
    • "an Egyptian symbol of life... serimposed [sic] over an upright pentagram often denotes an interest in Gardnerian witchcraft."[31]

    • "Ancient, Egyptian fertility symbol, symbol of life and worship to Ra, the Sun God. To wear this the owners gave up their virginity and practised orgies as a part of worship."[32]

    • "Practitioners of witchcraft that devise sexual abuse wear the ankh with a star [sic]".[33]

    • "The Ankh or Luv [sic] Knot symbolizes sexual intercourse, eternal life and is often used in the Devil's pentagram. It has nothing to do with the eternal life purchased by the cross of Jesus Christ and should not be worn on the body."[34]

    • "The cross of Satan"[35]

    • "The Cross of Life, a.k.a. the Ankh... Carnal existence is supreme over spiritual existence. Originally a Christian symbol, ... "[36]

    • "...the ankh is a sacrilegious symbol of a satanic circle surmounting the cross. Ungodly in the extreme, it attempts to depict Satan as supreme over the sacrifice of Jesus."[37]
    Detective Don Rimer's Ritual Crime and the Occult: The New Youth Subculture manual includes the ankh in a list of "Satanic Symbols", as does Lou Sloat's Texas Ritualistic Crime Information Network Occult Crime Manual.[38] Thomas Carder's ChildCare Action Project/Christian Analysis of American Culture web site offers the following definition:

    "ANKH: This symbol represents fertility and lust and is also known as the Key of Life. As a development of the Tau Cross (after the Greek letter, Tau "T"... ), also known as the Egyptian Cross or the Crux Ansata, one application of the ankh represents the genitals of both sexes: the ovoid or yoni (the Satanic symbol of external female genitals and Shakti, the wife of a deity) and the cross below it as the male member in mockery of Christ as the giver of eternal life. Following Christ's death, the Tau Cross portion of the ankh was a symbol of death and ending, ostensibly because of the similarity of the Tau with the Cross of Christ and the profuse use of the Tau (and similar) cross configuration to crucify thieves and other criminals. The yoni was added atop the Tau Cross to represent life. In witchcraft, the ankh is used as a symbol for life, love (maybe lust), and reincarnation (likely in mockery of the Resurrection of Christ in which death was an inherent precursor). While the ankh is a symbol of the belief in a life-death-reincarnation process, it is worn with a star by those into witchcraft who practice and concoct sexual abuse."[39]

    The ankh is a much older symbol than the Greek letter Tau and was not developed from it as Carder suggests here. Carder has another listing for the Tau cross on his list and I will deal with this later. We've seen several other people in this book suggest that wearing an ankh is supposed to indicate that you engage in sexual abuse. While the ankh is certainly a symbol of life, I have not heard it referred to as a "key of life" anywhere but Carder's list. Shakti isn't just the "wife of a deity", she is a Goddess in Hindu mythology that represents the supreme feminine. Her husband, the God Shiva, represents the male principle. The ankh predates Christianity and was never created in mockery of Christ.

    The Ankh, also known as the Crux Ansata or AnX, is an Egyptian symbol. This Egyptian symbol predates Christianity by hundreds of years, so there is no way that it could be considered "sacrilegious" or a symbol "desecrating Christianity." The ankh is an Egyptian heiroglyph meaning both "life" and "hand mirror" (specifically the mirror of the Goddess Hathor). To the Egyptians it was a symbol of sexual union and immortality. It has become a popular symbol in New Age jewelry. All of the Egyptian Gods and Goddesses are depicted holding an ankh, so one cannot say that it is a particular symbol of the sun God Ra. This nonsense about having to participate in orgies to earn the right to wear an ankh is either nonsense that has been made up or that has been quoted from some equally ill informed source.

    I own copies of all of Gerald Gardner's original works, every available book on Gardnerian Wicca and have associated with Gardnerians for over two and a half decades and I've never seen the Gardnerians use a symbol combining an ankh and a pentagram as a symbol.

    Antakarana Bridge/Rainbow:

    In Herold's A Basic Guide to the Occult for Law Enforcement Agencies, one finds a drawing of a vertical double-headed arrow with the caption: "Antakarana Bridge. Also symbolized by a rainbow. The soul bridged with the oversoul-- man bridged with Lucifer."[40] One also finds Antakarana and the rainbow in Phil Phillips's book, Turmoil in the Toybox:

    "[The Rainbow Brite]cartoon series is laden with occult symbolisms. Rainbow Brite lives in Rainbow Land with her friends, the Color Kids, and Sprites, the happy little workers who manufacture Star Sprinkles... The very basis for this series, the rainbow, also causes concern for many Christians. Although many people collect rainbows, primarily for their colored beauty, few realize their significance. According to the Word of God, rainbows are a symbol of God's everlasting covenant that He never again would destroy the earth by flood. But for New Agers, those who uphold the tenets of the New Age Movement or Humanism, the rainbow holds a different meaning. New Agers use 'rainbows to signify their building of the "Rainbow Bridge" (antahkarana) between man and Lucifer who, they say, is the over soul.'...Humanism is contradictory to God's Word. Thus, any toy or cartoon series that employs symbolisms from the New Age Movement is also in contradiction to Scripture."[41]

    It comes up again in the first chapter of Michaelson's Your Kids and the Occult under a section with the title "The War for Your Child's Mind": "And yet it is a fact that many of today's cartoons and toys are saturated not only with violence, but with hard-core occultism, some of it obvious and some of it subtle, but all of it powerful in its potential impact on vulnerable children. New Agers won't have a difficult time at all explaining to these children the profoundly occult concept of building the Rainbow Bridge (called the Antahkarana) between man and the 'over soul' who is Lucifer, because these children already know that rainbows are the bridge on which they travel to reach Rainbow Brite, who 'has the power of the rainbow to make you happy!'"[42]

    In Mystery Mark of the New Age, Texe Marrs goes after rainbows: "Ever since God created the beautiful and colorful rainbow in the sky as a covenant of His love for mankind, pagans led by Satan have worked to pervert its true meaning. The Irish legend of the leprechaun with his pot of gold at the end of the rainbow sought to instill in man a covetous desire for treasures and prosperity on earth. In the practice of voodoo magic in Haiti and Africa today, the rainbow is depicted as an event celebrating the marriage of a 'rainbow god' to the 'serpent god'...The New Age undoubtedly has grasped onto the rainbow because of its connection with the teachings of Tibetian Buddhism, from which many of the New Age doctrines have risen... the New Age teaches that man's path to godhood is symbolized by the 'Rainbow Bridge', which man crosses over by achieving higher consciousness. The reward at the other end of the rainbow: self-empowerment, immortality, divinity."[43]Marrs then quotes Djwal Khul in the book The Rainbow Bridge[44], (which Marrs claims to be a "bestselling book"[45]) saying that "'personalities have learned how to build the Antahkarana [Rainbow Bridge]... The processes given in the RAINBOW BRIDGE have brought thousands to the point of purification and cleansing.'"[46]

    Later Marrs attacks the practices of visualization and meditation by linking them to the rainbow: "Through visualization, meditation and other means of achieving Kundalini or transformation, the individual focuses on the seven colors of the rainbow. In so doing, he unknowingly imbeds satanic images in his mind. Swirling in a sea of mesmerizing images, the colors become mandalas- hypnotic picturescapes of kaleidoscope images that reprogram the person's mind to accept the lies of 'The Presence,' who is the Devil... someday, unsuspectingly, they will visualize and be seized by a grinning pack of vicious demon beings staring at them through the fiery flames of hell."[47]

    In other words, don't think, don't use your imagination, just accept the Bible as being literally true and obediently obey. Mandalas are elaborate circular patterns used for meditation. They are not used to reprogram people to become Satanists. Meditation using mandalas doesn't result in demon possession.

    Antakarana is actually the name of an ethnic group in Madagascar whose name means "People of the Rocks". This term for the Rainbow comes from The Rainbow Bridge, an obscure book by Djwal Khul on Tibetian Buddhism published in California, which was not a best seller as Marrs claims elsewhere in his book.

    The rainbow is a symbol common to many spiritual paths. The rainbow is the bridge of the soul boats in Indonesia. The Rainbow is also the path of the Goddess Iris in Greek mythology and the bow of the gods for several Arab tribes, as well as the Bantu tribe in Central Africa. Amongst the Nandi, Masai and Yuki Indian tribes it is the robe of a god. In the mythologies of tropical African, Asian, Australian and South American tribes it is the rainbow serpent who swallows the rain. There was a rainbow bridge called Bifrost in Norse mythology which led to the home of the Gods in Asgard. None of these religious groups are Satanic. In fact in ancient Christian mythology the rainbow is often spoken of as the throne of Christ.

    Folklore like the legends about lepracauns is not created consciously in the sense that Marrs suggests. Marrs makes it sound as if folklore is a technique of the Satanic Conspiracy he believes in (itself a piece of folklore).

    Vodou isn't magic, it is a religion. In Vodou mythology, the creator God Legba uses the rainbow to travel to the Earth. Erzulie, the Virgin Goddess of the moon and the second most important deity of the Vodou religion, controls the rainbow. Both Erzulie, in the form of the lunar serpent Aida Wedo, and the rainbow which she controls are represented on the center post of the peristyle (Vodou temple). The rainbow is not a symbol "celebrating the marriage of a 'rainbow god' to the 'serpent god'" as Marrs asserts. It is a marriage between the rainbow Goddess Erzulie in her form as a serpent to the God Legba. One crucial thing that Marrs has either missed or omitted to tell you is that Vodou is full of Christian (specifically Catholic) mythology.

    Athame and Bolline:

    The Athame and the Bolline are knives used in Wiccan rituals as well as in Occidental Ceremonial Magic. They are often misidentified or confused in occult crime manuals. For example: In Schemes of Satan, Warnke states:

    "Also known as the Bolline, the Athame is the ceremonial knife of a witch or satanist... First the hilt of the knife must be black. This helps to distinguish it from the white handled knife that is employed for digging, engraving, cutting or piercing. Most Athames have a double edged steel blade about five or six inches long. Ideally, both sides of the blade should be sharp... It is believed that the use of the athame during a ritual raises 'the cone of power' for the magician's use in casting a spell."[48]

    On the Demonbusters web site one finds a page with the title "Paraphernalia - Tools - Symbols Wicca - Satan's Little White Lie"[49] which misspells one of the two ritual knives ("Boleen" instead of "Bolline"), and then proclaims that "Wicca symbols are similar to Satan worship".[50] In Satanism: The Not So New Problem, Rapacki defines the athame as "A daggar [sic] or sword used by a priestess or witch in a magical ceremony. It has a black handle and magic symbols engraved on its blade."[51] William Dubois, in Occult Crime, misspells the name of one of them when he states: "The short dagger, often called an athemae... "[52]

    In Clifford Alford's Occult Crimes Investigations, one finds a diagram of an "Inscription for Atheme [sic] Blade". This "Atheme" has a number of unrecognizable symbols on it. Under the diagram is the following even cruder remark printed by hand: "The Atheme Blade is used in all Rights [sic] even more so than Sword [sic] because of its versitility [sic]. Most rituals and if any sacrifices will occur close to full moon but not after [sic]. Basically because the belief is Good energy is in the days before [sic]. Negative Energy and rites are done afterwards".[53]

    A Bolline and an Athame are two separate knives. A Bolline is a sickle or knife used for cutting herbs or engraving objects both in Occidental Ceremonial Magick and in Wiccan ritual practice. Usually the Bolline has a white handle. The term "bolline" first appeared in the Greater Key of Solomon in reference to a tool of this sort. Another term for this knife used in Welsh traditions is "Kerfan". Traditionally it is only used for ritual purposes and often is not used outside of a consecrated Circle.

    Clearly the Bolline is the white handled knife that Warnke is referring to here. The Athame is the Wiccan's traditional consecrated ritual knife. It isn't used for mundane tasks like the Bolline is. In most Wiccan traditions, each coven member will carry an Athame, although some traditions will substitute wands. The Athame often has a black handle.

    The Athame is a magical tool which first appears with the name "arthame" in French transcripts of the Greater Key of Solomon (specifically manuscript number 2350 in the Bilbioteque de l'Arsenal in Paris, entitled Le Secret des secrets, autrement la Clavicule de Salomon ou le veritable Grimoire).[54] In De Givry's Witchcraft, Magic and Alchemy, the "arthame" is described as being the magic knife of the witch.[55] A tool with a similar name, an "arctrave" or hook, appears in the Book of True Black Magic, which is based on the Greater Key of Solomon.[56] Wiccan author Sybil Leek refers to it as an "athalme". "Athamas" is a variation of the Greek word Athanatos ("immortal") used in the consecration of the sacred pen in the Greater Key of Solomon. "Athemay" is the name of the sun in summer in The Magus.

    Wiccan author Doreen Valiente pointed out that Clark Aston Smith introduced the arthame as a tool of magic with the name "athame" in his story, "The Master of the Crabs," which appeared in the magazine Wierd Tales in 1947. Valiente also points out that: "some present day exponents of the near-eastern cult of Sufism have attributed it to the Arabic 'adh-dhame', meaning 'blood letter', in the sense of it being a shedder of blood, which is just what the witches' athame is not."[57] Valiente then dismisses the Sufist theory of the word's origins for this reason.

    Now while the athame is definitely not used to draw blood in modern Wiccan practice, we cannot say that this is alone is a valid reason to reject the possibility that this was, in fact, the original root of this word. Walker reports that the name of this Moorish-Arab-Andalusian weapon was the "al-dhamme", which was used by a cult of moon worshippers called the "Double Horned-ones". It was called the "blood letter" because it was used in a ritual scarring ceremony.[58]

    Secondly, an athame is not always made of steel. I've seen stone, wood and plastic ones. Nor do they need to be sharp: In Wiccan practice the Athame is used in a ritual act of cutting oneself off from the mundane world in Circle casting.

    A "cone of power" represents the energy raised inside a Circle. Athames have nothing to do with it. In fact, if Warnke is referring here to a magician in an Occidental Ceremonial tradition, this magician will be using a sword to cast the circle, not an Athame. Contrary to Rapacki's suggestion, an athame is a knife, not a sword. It is not exclusively used by women.

    Babylon:

    Marrs presents his interpretation of the standard fundamentalist Christian history of religion, which claims that a Goddess Religion called "Mystery Babylon" was created in ancient Babylon. Marrs states:

    "This seductive but thoroughly wicked religion was centered around the worship of idols. Its vast system of gods and goddesses were all linked to and subordinate to the unholy trinity of the Great Goddess, her husband, and their son. Along with its debauchery and its man-god evolution doctrine, the Babylon Mystery Religion of the Goddess had its symbols (the Image and Mark of the Beast), as well as its magical names and words of power (the Name of the Beast). In addition, its doctrine included the magical science of numerology (the Number of the Beast). My research proves conclusively that every known New Age and occult symbol in use today in the latter part of the twentieth century had its origins in the ancient Babylon Mystery Religion."[59]

    All of this is nonsense created through creative and selective interpretation of Biblical passages, treating metaphor and allegory as if it were literal fact. Babylon was not the birth place of the world's religions as Marrs suggests, and none of the Goddess religions was or is Satanic. None of the Goddess religions used the image, mark or number of the beast mentioned in Revelations 13.

    Marrs uses all of these nonsensical statements as "proof" that these groups are Satanic, stating: "So again we come upon another case of Satan reviving the symbolism, ritual and practice of the evil religious system he so successfully established in the days of Nimrod and Semiramis in Babylon. MYSTERY BABYLON is alive and well in the symbols and idolatry of the New Age World Religion. Some Christian authorities today believe that the pentagram may well turn out to be the Mark of the Beast of Revelation 13."[60]

    Marrs attributes much of this nonsense to Christian author Manly P. Hall, the author of the 1928 book The Secret Teachings of All Ages and Questions and Answers- Fundamentals of the Esoteric Sciences. Barela I mentioned earlier. Just because a particular symbol appears in the art of a culture does not mean that the culture in question "worshipped" that symbol, nor does it mean that they attached the same meaning to that symbol that you do.

    Black Dragon/Red Dragon:

    In Schemes of Satan, Warnke claims that the Black Dragon is a grimoire: "Black Dragon: A popular grimoire attributed to Honorius, an occultist of the 15th century."[61]This same definition later found it's way into Sgt. Anderson's Law Enforcement Guide to Occult Related Crime.[62]Lou Sloat's Texas Ritualistic Crime Information Network Occult Crime Manual includes Black Dragon in its list of occult terms.[63]

    The fifteenth century grimoire that they are referring to here is actually the Red Dragon, not the Black Dragon. It's complete title is Le Dragon Rouge ou L'Art de Commander les Esprits Celestes, Aeriens et Infernaux. The oldest copy is dated 1521. Though it is attributed to Honorius, he was not its author. Honorius died roughly 500 years before Le Dragon Rouge was written. There is another grimoire supposedly written by Honorius, known as the Grimoire of Honorius or the Sworn Book of Honorius, but it first appeared sometime in the 14th century and is better known from reprints in the 17th century. The only grimoires whose titles refer to black creatures are The Black Pullet (La Poule Noir), which appeared in the mid 19th century, and an obscure French grimoire entitled The Black Screech Owl. Honorius didn't write either of these.

    Book of Enoch:

    In Anderson's Law Enforcement Guide to Occult Related Crime, one finds a definition of the Book of Enoch: "An extra-Biblical work, apparently written in the 2nd century b.c. which forms the basis for much of the mythology associated with witchcraft."[64] Lou Sloat's Texas Ritualistic Crime Information Network Occult Crime Manual includes Book of Enoch in its list of occult terms.[65]

    Enoch was the seventh patriarch of the Book of Genesis, the son of Cain. He is the subject of several works of apocryphal literature, which describe him as having received secret knowledge from God. This mirrors the Babylonian myth of the king Enmenduranna, who received divine revelations from the sun god. There are actually TWO Books of Enoch:

    The First Book of Enoch, also known as the Ethiopic Book of Enoch is a pseudepigraphical work (in other words not included in any canon of Biblical scripture). It is called "Ethiopic" because the only surviving version is an Ethiopic translation of an earlier Greek text, which was in turn a translation of an even earlier Hebrew text. Part of it is the "Apocalypse of Weeks", written about 168 BCE. Other portions appear to have been written by a Jewish Christian in the 2nd century CE who wanted to use Enoch's name for his work to give it authority. Much of it has to do with the fate of the soul after death. The First Book of Enoch was originally accepted by the Christian Church but later excluded from Biblical canon.

    The Second Book of Enoch, also known as the Slavonic Book of Enoch, another pseudepigraphical work. It is called Slavonic because the only surviving version is a Slavonic translation of an earlier Greek text. It is dated by scholars to the 7th century CE, and may be based in part on fragments from as far back as the 1st century BCE. It starts with a description of Enoch's travels through seven tiers of heaven, goes on to describe how Enoch received wisdom from God, and then ends with Enoch's advice to his sons.

    Neither the First Book of Enoch nor the Second Book of Enoch discuss witchcraft, though they do discuss heavenly structure and the inhabitants of this structure. To confuse matters further, the Elizabethan alchemist and ceremonial magician John Dee and his assistant medium Edward Kelly, developed a system and language of magic which he called "Enochian". Dee authored several books, but none of them was called the "Book of Enoch". Therefore it would be more accurate to say that the myths surrounding the Books of Enoch forms the basis for many of the Christian myths associated with witchcraft.

    Book of Shadows:

    A Book of Shadows and a Grimoire are two quite different things, but you'd have trouble figuring this out from some of the definitions that I've found in books on the occult authored by Christians. William Dubois, in Occult Crime, claims that a Book of Shadows is a Satanic document. In Schemes of Satan, Warnke confuses the two:

    "Often called a book of shadows, the Grimoire is a record of the spells employed by particular individuals or groups. Unlike the books on witchcraft that are available on the open market, the Grimoire is generally a handwritten manual and its contents are supposed to be kept secret. It may take a variety of forms, but the cover is usually black... The Grimoire describes various spells and rituals in detail. The instructions may be written in calligraphic script. Some groups may also keep a list of their members in the Grimoire as well as the dates of the groups' activities. For groups involved in sacrifices, a list of their victims and/or intended victims may possibly be found there as well. For satanists and witches, the Grimoire is a spellbook. One specific Grimoire that is often used by witches is called The Greater Key of Solomon."[66] Later in the book Warnke gives the following definition: "Key of Solomon: Probably the most famous grimoire ever written; some legends hold that it was written by demons and hidden under Solomon's throne...".[67]

    As does Johnston in the glossary of his book The Edge of Evil: "Book of Shadows: Also called a Grimoire, this journal kept either by individual witches or satanists or by a coven or group, records the activities of the group and the incantations used."[68] Later in the glossary, Johnston defines "Grimoires" as "A medieval collection of magical spells, rituals, and incantations. Also any coven or circle's Book of Shadows recording spells, ceremonies, and histories of the group."[69]

    In Alan Herbert Peterson's American Focus on Satanic Crime: Volume II, one finds the statement: "What is a `Book of Shadows'? It is a black-covered book in which teen followers write down their a record of their [sic] cult activities and locations, their agreement and/or suicide pact with Satan, secret cult messages, rituals, slang and more. It can be a vital key to the entire investigation and intelligence gathering process."[70]

    In A Concise Dictionary of Cults and Religions, William Watson defines "The Book of Shadows" as a "Sacred book of witchcraft. Also can refer to a notebook of occult magic spells and rituals kept by people involved in Satanism."[71] In The Dark Side of Halloween, David Brown quotes another "occult expert" on this subject:

    "Dave Benoit tells of a mother finding a strange diary, called 'The Book of Shadows' in her son's room. She, with fear and trembling, leafed through pages filled with Satanic drawings. Then her eyes fell on these horrifying words, 'Last year I stole a car at Halloween and ran over a kid and killed him. This year at Halloween, I plan to do the same thing!' The words in this Satanic diary proved to be true. The teenager is now incarcerated. He murdered a kid as a sacrifice to Satan."[72]

    Reverend Dave Benoit is the founder of Glory Ministries and associated with Cornerstone Community Baptist Church. Benoit claims to have been "saved out of the rock and drug culture." This is an interesting anecdote, but no one offers any names, dates, or locations that would allow us to corroborate it.

    A Book of Shadows is a personal handwritten journal used by Wiccans, not Satanists. It contains rituals, magic, and herbal remedies. A Book of Shadows belonging to a Wiccan initiated in one of the principal traditions of Wicca will more or less resemble those belonging to others in that tradition. A Book of Shadows belonging to a solitary Wiccan is likely to be more unique.

    A few customs and ritual forms were borrowed from the grimoire The Greater Key of Solomon by Wiccan founder Gerald Gardner. This is probably what led to the belief of some "experts" that a Book of Shadows and a grimoire are the same thing. While these few elements ultimately became part of Gardner's original Book of Shadows, Wiccans do not use The Greater Key of Solomon itself and more than a few Wiccans, such as myself, have long since excised the parts borrowed from the Greater Key of Solomon from our own journals.

    Book of Thoth:

    Lou Sloat's Texas Ritualistic Crime Information Network Occult Crime Manual lists "Book of Toth/Thoth" as "A book containing the wisdom of the Egyptian Gods; possibly the origin for the Tarot."[73] This definition makes this book sound as if it is quite ancient. In fact the Book of Thoth is an alternate name for the fifth installment of a serial journal of volume III of Aleister Crowley's The Equinox, appearing in this form in 1944. It described Crowley's version of Egyptian Tarot, therefore it could not have been the source of Tarot, which is hundreds of years older.

    Continue on to Definitions... Symbols (A-B) - Symbols (C-F) - Symbols (G-N) - Symbols (O-S) - Symbols (T-Z)



    Footnotes...

    [7] "Amulets, Spells, Charms and Taboos" http://www.demonbuster.com/zpart2‑w1.html
    [8] Pennsylvania State Police Missing Persons Bulletin, Bureau of Criminal Investigation- Missing Persons Unit, Volume 3, Number 3 "Satanism: The Law Enforcement Response"
    [9] Carder, Thomas. Back To School Special, ChildCare Action Project: Christian Analysis of American Culture, http://www.capalert.com/backtoschool/backtoschool.htm
    [10] Warnke, Mike. (1991). Schemes of Satan, pg 281.
    [11] Anderson, Sgt Edwin C, Jr: Law Enforcement Guide to Occult Related Crime, California State University Police, pg 3.
    [12] Ibid.
    [13] McDowell, Josh and Stewart, Don. Handbook of Today's Religions: Understanding the Occult, pg 36, citing Clifford Wilson and John Weldon.
    [14] Mitchell, Norman E. Hidden Practices, pg 4.
    [15] Sloat, Lou: Texas Ritualistic Crime Information Network Occult Crime Manual, pg 78.
    [16] Doreen Valiente, An ABC of Witchcraft, pg 5.
    [17] "WICCA - SATAN'S LITTLE WHITE LIE", http://www.demonbuster.com/zpart2‑w9.html
    [18] Warnke, Mike. (1991). Schemes of Satan, pg 183.
    [19] Frattarola, John: "Passport Magazine Special Edition: America's Best Kept Secret", insert "A Look At Modern Day Satanism", page 1.
    [20] Anderson, Sgt Edwin C, Jr: Law Enforcement Guide to Occult Related Crime, California State University Police, pg 33.
    [21] William Dubois. Occult Crime Control, pg 52 and Occult Crime, pg 90.
    [22] Ibid, pg 316.
    [23] Marshall, Peter. Demanding the Impossible, p. 558.
    [24] Peterson, Peter. "Flag, Torch, and Fist: The Symbols of Anarchism", Freedom, vol. 48, No. 11, pp. 8.
    [25] "Where does the circled-A come from?", http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/1931/append2.html#circledA
    [26] Marshall, Peter. Demanding the Impossible, p. 445.
    [27] Peterson, Peter. "Flag, Torch, and Fist: The Symbols of Anarchism", Freedom, vol. 48, No. 11, pp. 8.
    [28] Westhoelter, Shane. (1989). General Information Manual With Respect to Satanism and the Occult, National Information Network, pg 57.
    [29] Sloat, Lou. (Date unknown). Texas Ritualistic Crime Information Network Occult Crime Manual, pg 14.
    [30] Rapacki, Lyle. (1991). Satanism: The Not So New Problem, pg 55.
    [31] Warnke, Mike. (1991). Schemes of Satan, pg 171.
    [32] Herold, Mary Ann. (1984). A Basic Guide to the Occult for Law Enforcement Agencies, pg 8.
    [33] Be Aware!: A Handbook for the Purpose of Exposing Occultic Activity, WATCH Network, pg 6.
    [34] "Forbidden Practices of the Occult" http://www.demonbuster.com/z6fpoto.html
    [35] Anderson, Sgt Edwin C, Jr: Law Enforcement Guide to Occult Related Crime, California State University Police, pg 33.
    [36] Dubois. Occult Crime Control, pg 47 and Occult Crime, pg 89.
    [37] Marrs, Texe: Mystery Mark of the New Age, pg 112.
    [38] Sloat, Lou. (Date unknown). Texas Ritualistic Crime Information Network Occult Crime Manual, pg 28.
    [39] Carder, Thomas. Back To School Special, ChildCare Action Project: Christian Analysis of American Culture, http://www.capalert.com/backtoschool/backtoschool.htm
    [40] Herold, Mary Ann. (1984). A Basic Guide to the Occult for Law Enforcement Agencies, pg 35.
    [41] Phillips, Phil: Turmoil in the Toybox, pg 82/83.
    [42] Ibid, pg 8.
    [43] Ibid, pg 98.
    [44] Two Disciples. (1981). The Rainbow Bridge, Rainbow Bridge Productions, Danville, CA, pg 199-200.
    [45] Marrs, Texe: Mystery Mark of the New Age, pg 98.
    [46] Marrs, Texe: Mystery Mark of the New Age, pg 98, emphasis in original.
    [47] Ibid, pg 99/100.
    [48] Warnke, Mike. (1991). Schemes of Satan, pg 140.
    [49] "Paraphernalia - Tools - Symbols Wicca - Satan's Little White Lie", http://www.demonbuster.com/zpart2‑w9.html
    [50] Alford, Clifford. Occult Crimes Investigations, pg 53.
    [51] Rapacki, Lyle J. (1988). Satanism: The Not So New Problem, Intel, pg 55.
    [52] Dubois, William. (1990). Occult Crime Control, pg 63.
    [53] Ibid, pg 53.
    [54] Grillot de Givry. Witchcraft, Magic and Alchemy, pg 102-103.
    [55] Ibid, pg 90 and 133.
    [56] A E Waite. The Book of Black Magic and Ceremonial Magic, pg 154.
    [57] Valiente, Doreen. Witchcraft For Tomorrow, pg 78.
    [58] Walker, Barbara. The Women's Dictionary of Symbols and Sacred Objects, pg 21.
    [59] Marrs, Texe: Mystery Mark of the New Age, pg 125, emphasis in original.
    [60] Ibid, pg 94-96, emphasis in original.
    [61] Warnke, Mike. (1991). Schemes of Satan, pg 285.
    [62] Anderson, Sgt Edwin C, Jr: Law Enforcement Guide to Occult Related Crime, California State University Police, pg 8.
    [63] Sloat, Lou. (Date unknown). Texas Ritualistic Crime Information Network Occult Crime Manual, pg 14.
    [64] Anderson, Sgt Edwin C, Jr: Law Enforcement Guide to Occult Related Crime, California State University Police, pg 9.
    [65] Sloat, Lou. (Date unknown). Texas Ritualistic Crime Information Network Occult Crime Manual, pg 14.
    [66] Warnke, Mike. (1991). Schemes of Satan, pg 143.
    [67] Ibid, pg 291.
    [68] Ibid, pg 317.
    [69] Johnston, Jerry. (1989). The Edge of Evil, Word Publishing, Vancouver, BC, appendix.
    [70] Peterson, Alan Herbert. (1990). American Focus on Satanic Crime: Volume II.
    [71] Watson, William. (1991). A Concise Dictionary of Cults and Religions, pg 43.
    [72] Brown, David L. The Dark Side of Halloween, pg 11.
    [73] Sloat, Lou. (Date unknown). Texas Ritualistic Crime Information Network Occult Crime Manual, pg 16.






    ABOUT...

    Kerr Cuhulain


    Location: Surrey, British Columbia

    Website: http://www.officersofavalon.com

    Bio: Kerr Cuhulain the author of this article, is known to the mundane world as Detective Constable Charles Ennis. Ennis, a former child abuse investigator, is the author of several articles on child abuse investigation that appeared in Law & Order Magazine. Better known to the Pagan community by his Wiccan name, Kerr Cuhulain, Ennis was the first Wiccan police officer to go public about his beliefs 28 years ago. Kerr is now the Preceptor General of Officers of Avalon. Kerr went on to write four books: The Law Enforcement Guide to Wicca (Horned Owl Publishing), Wiccan Warrior and Full Contact Magick: A Book of Shadows for the Wiccan Warrior. (Llewellyn Publications), as well as a book based on this series: Witch Hunts: Out of the Broom Closet (Spiral Publishing).

    Email Kerr: cuhulain@telus.net

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