Myth Makers |
Author: Kerr Cuhulain
Posted: October 14th. 2002
Times Viewed: 7,222
Westhoelter next goes into minute detail on how to sacrifice animals and young virgins and how to perform Satanic initiations, ceremonies for the "Bride of Satan," Masses for the Dead, and so on. Here are some excerpts in which Westhoelter describes what he thinks happens at Sabbats:
- "SABBATS are other meetings satanists and witches hold, however, these are more like festivals or holidays. There are four major and four minor seasonal festivals each year and each one holds significance to them... The meeting usually begins about 9:00 p.m. and ends at dawn. These festivals consists of beating for those who had failed at tasks, meals including cannibalism, dancing, chanting, promiscuous intercourse, and other perverted activities (sic). Sacrifices of different kinds may also occur."(60)
NOTE: Sabbat is derived from a Hebrew term: "shabbath" ("rest"). This later became "Sabbaton" in Greek, "Sabbatum" in Latin and ultimately "Sabat" in Old English (circa 950 CE). In Christianity the Sabbath is a day of rest, being the seventh day after the creation of the world, according to the Bible. In Judaism and some Christian sects this is Saturday, but in most other Christian denominations it is Sunday. To Wiccans, the Sabbat is a major Wiccan festival, marking the turning of the seasons of the year. There are eight Sabbats evenly spaced throughout the year. The Wiccan use of the term "Sabbat" was derived from the works of Margaret Murray. Murray used the term "Sabbats" to refer to the major celebrations of Pagans persecuted as witches during the Inquisition. Murray borrowed it from the works of early demonologists, who used the term to describe alleged meetings of witches because the same demonologists held Judaism to be the antithesis of Christianity. For this same reason Modern day Satanists use it to describe their ritual meetings too.
- "MAY EVE or BELTANE...It is one of the most powerful witches' sabbats. The witches in attendance vow to obey their god, the 'master' disguised as an animal."(61)
NOTE: I discussed Beltaine in part I of this article. One of the customs that I didn't discuss then was the traditional "Hobby Horses" that make their appearance at Beltaine. This is similar to the custom of Hodening that occurs at Samhain and Yule. The most usual form is a hoop frame, six feet in diameter, covered with cloth skirting. In front is a wooden horse's head, with jaws that snap. A man stands inside, his head hidden by a mask. The Hobby Horse goes about with a group of attendants, the most important of which is often a "Teaser" or "Club Man" who carries a padded club and wears grotesque clothing. As they process down the streets the Hobby Horse will rush at girls and try to trap them under his skirts. This is thought to bring them fertility and/or a husband. The inside of the skirts was formerly smeared with blacking to leave a mark on the girl of her good fortune, but this is not done in modern survivals of this custom. Another discontinued custom was the sprinkling of water on the onlookers by the Hobby Horse when it stopped at a pool to "drink". Every so often the horse sinks down as if dying and the songs change from happy ones to sadder ones. The Teaser gently strokes him with his club. But after this brief pause the Hobby horse leaps up, the music returns to happier tunes and the procession continues. This is probably where Westhoelter got the idea that Pagans are attending a "master disguised as an animal."
- "THE YULE SOLSTICE...This celebrates the shortest day of the year and the rebirth of the sun as a young babe to the Great Goddess. It has been said that during this time baby boys are severely tortured to blaspheme the Christ child being born".(62)
NOTE: I discussed Yule customs in Part I of this article. None of these ritual practices include torture or disrespect to Christ.
At the end of this section is the same "Satanic Ritual Calendar," found in the America's Best Kept Secret that we discussed in part one of this article. Westhoelter tells us that this was supplied by Special Agents Bradford and Craig.
The next chapter in the NIN manual is "Counselling Information." It starts with a section: "The Draw to Satanism." In this Westhoelter states that "America's high rate of divorce, causing broken homes, has been a contributing factor to occult involvement."(63) No statistics of any sort are produced to back this claim up. This is simply a variation of the common Christian theme of a return to "traditional family values" as a cure for society's ills. Certainly as the "traditional" family structure fails to meet the needs of today's families, people will seek for new systems that work better, but to suggest that divorce leads to occult involvement is absurd.
The last chapter in the NIN manual is entitled "Criminal Information." Most of it was written by Carole Allen-Bailey, co-author of the essay "Heavy Metal: A Weighty Police Problem," the other co-author being David Balsiger. You will recall that Balsiger was co-author of Michael Warnke's book The Satan Seller, which I debunked earlier in this series. "Criminal Information" starts with an Allen-Bailey article on "Occult Related Crime Scenes Clues." Pat Metoyer is named as the primary source in this article. Metoyer was a detective in the Los Angeles Police Department, who has authored some articles on occult crime in law enforcement magazines and who has been used as a resource by various agencies, specifically for his knowledge of Santeria, a latin American spirit religion. Metoyer is quoted as saying ridiculous things such as:
"When investigators discover black or white candle wax at a crime scene, there's a strong possibility of an occult connection... I've been married 25 years, and my wife has never set the table with black candles... There's absolutely no use for the light of Lucifer, other than for some form of ceremony... In occultic circles, black candles represent 'good', and white candles at a crime scene indicates that someone has been formally cursed."(64)
While black is associated with evil in the Zoroastrian concepts absorbed into Christianity, an investigator assuming that all black or white candles indicate ceremonies designed to curse is in for a surprise. For example: In candle magic (a New Age practice unrelated to Satanism), the correct colour candle for a person under the astrological sign of Libra is black. Black is a secondary colour for another astrological sign: Scorpio. And in some contexts black candles indicate loss, not evil. At Halloween vendors sell thousands of black and orange candles to housewives decorating their homes for the season. We can't assume that these were bought by Satanists. An investigator taking Metoyer's advice could easily walk into a household, see black or white candles, and draw the wrong conclusion.
Allen-Bailey's next commentary in this chapter is a tabloid style article which has the ridiculous title "Occult Crime Investigation--Witch One Did It? Witch One Didn't?" It has a section on "Witchcraft" which claims that Witches "fall into categories: white and black witchcraft."(65) Here is the "black versus white witchcraft" myth again. Allen-Bailey goes on to say:
"Those of the Wiccan faith never sacrifice cats, because felines are a favourite lodging place of familiar spirits, the demons who predict the future. Wiccans claim their magic is helpful, and are probably the most 'visible' witches in any community. But practitioners of black witchcraft are difficult to track down--and with good reason. Didicated (sic) black witches make no distinction between good and evil, and their motto is "the ends justify the means", no matter what they do to carry out their desires... According to verifiable sources, these demons are real. Cults and black witches regularly sacrifice dogs and other animals on demonic holy days, as well as on other evenings, at the coven's discretion. Human sacrifices also reportedly take place, and this is approved of in witchcraft circles where members are given honor for committing ugly, unfathomable crimes" [emphasis in original].(66)
The idea that Witches have animals, usually cats, as "familiars," that they call on "demons" to predict the future, and that they sacrifice animals and humans, are myths manufactured by the Office of the Inquisition. True to form, Allen-Bailey claims that she has "verifiable sources," but doesn't name them.
Allen-Bailey also quotes Mary Ann Herold, whom she identifies as "a former black witch" in this article. We will discuss Herold and her awful resource manuals elsewhere in this series. This is what Herold has to say:
"What officers might not know about occultists is that sometimes their ceremonies are guarded by two rows of sentries...the outer guard is posted to push people away from the ceremony, but the inner guard is usually armed and will protect the group from being apprehended...If a suicidal practitioner thinks you are a a threat to this desire to die and reincarnate or resurrect (sic), he/she might very well kill or hurt you (the police officer) in his defence. Covens and individual solitary practitioners are equipped with knives as ritual and ceremonial tools. Therefore consider each group or individual as armed and potentially dangerous...Drug induced occultism, witchcraft and Satanism pose a double threat: the unpredictable effects of the drugs mixed with the deviations of the practices".(67)
Here it is again: Indoctrinating unsuspecting law enforcement personnel into believing these myths and setting them up for an armed confrontation with innocent people.
Allen-Bailey finishes by praising Metoyer, Valdemar and one other officer for their Christian approach to law enforcement. This other officer is Corporal Kurt Jackson, a member of the Beaumont (CA) Police Department. Jackson has been a contributor to Larry Jones' "File 18" newsletter (which we discussed earlier in this series) and the author of a pamphlet entitled "Determining Ritual Child Abuse." Jackson has appeared on Geraldo Rivera, Oprah Winfrey, CBN's "700 Club", and in a film called "Devil Worship: The Rise of Satanism", which was made by Christian film maker Caryl Matrisciana, who I also discussed earlier in this series. This is what Allen-Bailey has to say about them:
"Fortunately, occult crime officers can carry their personal beliefs with them, and turn toward God when a case gets frightening. Christian police officers, such as Det. Pat Metoyer, Sgt. Richard Valdemar and Officer Kurt Jackson, said they feel confident investigating occult crime because, they said, they're not out there alone.
"For Kurt Jackson, occult crime scene investigation is an often brutal task. Beaumont Police Department has jurisdiction over miles of desert wasteland, and officers are turning up dozens of mutilated animals, who were sacrificed and left for coyotes to finish.
"'I wouldn't want to investigate occult crime scenes without my faith in God,' Jackson said. 'But in the battle between good and evil, we all know who's going to eventually win, in the end.
"'I feel confident investigating occult crime because of my personal religious background,' Metoyer said".(68)
This is a recurring theme in these manuals: That because of the "dangers" involved to the mental well being of "secular" officers and because only Christian officers have the knowledge needed to solve these crime cases, only Christian police officers are capable of investigating "occult crime." This is an elitist attitude with absolutely no basis in reality. What is most important in investigating these kinds of cases is objectivity and thoroughness, which we can easily see is absent in manuals of this sort. Of course one of the major reasons that these so-called experts really want to see only Christian officers investigating such reports is because then they can be sure that these cases will be interpreted in a way acceptable to them, a way that will fit into their Satanic conspiracy myths.
Allen-Bailey's praise is followed by a list supplied by Officer Dan Clark's department which appears to be a list of objectives for occult crime investigators and includes the following: "3. Establish the level of homosexual participation in witchcraft and Satanism, including occultic sadomasochistic rituals".(69) This indicates that the authors have preconceived notions about the sexual preferences of those classified as "occultists" and suggests that the author of the list may be homophobic.
In his closing remarks Westhoelter says:
"This is a physical battle against what some proclaim to believe and live, however, it is a spiritual battle as well. If you begin to deal with these so called 'satanist' practitioners, I strongly recommend you are prepared to deal with them spiritually.
"The only spiritual authority comes from Jesus Christ. If He is not our Lord and Saviour, He needs to be; not only for this work, but for your own eternal life. We all are going somewhere- either heaven or hell. Jesus is the only way to heaven. I suggest that you take time to consider what has just been said. The choice is yours, but it is obvious that satanism is real; why would you believe that Jesus Christ is not? Ask Him to be your Lord and Saviour today."(70)
The National Information Network manual is obviously of little or no use to the serious investigator. It is full of inaccuracies, half truths and falsehoods. It is simply another tool in the indoctrination campaign of NIN, which has declared spiritual war on anything not fundamentalist Christian.
You will recall that another organization that was disseminating the W.I.C.C.A. Letters myth was Exodus, based in Beitel Lutheran Church in San Antonio, Texas. The director and founder of Exodus is Yvonne Peterson. Peterson has made presentations on Satanic Ritual Abuse to community groups, including school PTAs and Christian schools. The content of these presentations can be pretty neatly summed up by the following line from an Exodus information sheet: "Satanism and Witchcraft are extreme forms of occult- they are luring our youth at an alarming rate! Reports are coming in from all over the nation of crime connected with the occult."(71) What isn't mentioned is that such reports are originating with organizations like Exodus.
Peterson appears in Roever Communication's film "Dave Roever Presents Exposing the Satanic Web," which we will discuss later in this series. Peterson was a subscriber and contributor to Cult Crime Impact Network's "File 18" newsletter. She is associated to Paul Lund, director of Eagle's Nest Ministries in Fountain Valley, California. Lund claims to be a former Satanic high priest and has lectured at seminars sponsored by Exodus.
Peterson (and thus Exodus) makes no distinction between Satanism and Neo Pagan religions such as Wicca. For example, in one of the 1986 issues of the Exodus newsletter Peterson states: "Witchcraft and Satanism, Druidism, idol worship (which scripture says is worship of demons, 1Cor 10:20-21), are all expressions of rebellion against God".(72) In a manual published by the Texas Ritualistic Crime Information Network I found a one page section entitled "Interviewing the Teenage Satanist," which is attributed to Exodus. In this section Exodus has a recommended list of ten questions that the investigator should ask those he suspects of being teenage Satanists. Most of these questions are rather innocuous, but the first question clearly indicates Peterson's belief that Witchcraft and Satanism are synonymous: "1) What kind of Witch or Satanist are you? A. Traditional B. Self-styled C. Modern D. Pagan".(73) Obviously Exodus considers Satanism and Wicca to be one in the same.
A year later, in Exodus' April 1987 newsletter, Peterson stated:
- "There is no innocent form of occultism".(74)
- "Dabbling in the occult is like being a little pregnant- either you are or you aren't".(75)
- "Witchcraft is the practice of and belief in things forbidden by God in the Bible DEUT 18:10-12".(76)
- "The Bible condemns all forms of witchcraft!".(77)
It is in this newsletter that Exodus first publishes the "W.I.C.C.A. Letters," attributing them to Deputy Dave Gaerin. In fact the announcement of Gaerin's "discovery" of these spurious letters follows the aforementioned comments about the occult.
Peterson believes that "human and animal sacrifices"(78) are a part of "Witchcraft and Satanism" on Halloween. In the Texas Ritualistic Crime manual that I mentioned earlier in the series I found an article from Exodus entitled "Halloween- What Can It Hurt?" This article begins twisting the facts with the following sentence: "Halloween is the only pagan holiday that has not been 'Christianized' over the years."(79) In fact the name "Halloween", as I pointed out earlier in this series, comes from the name of the Christian festival of All Souls Day that the Church moved from May to deliberately coincide with the older Celtic festival of Samhain. This is clearly an example of "Christianization." Exodus gets the etymology of the word "Halloween" wrong too, stating that it is derived from the pronunciation of the name "Samhain", which they incorrectly declare to be "sa-ween."(80) I showed the reader earlier that Halloween is, in fact, a contraction of "All Hallows Even."
In the next paragraph Exodus states that:
"The Druid's cruelty and magic was feared by the Celtic people and with good reason. Accounts quickly spread reports (sic) of their practices of sexual molestations, tortures and sacrifices, both animal and human, whose heart had been tore out (sic) and offered as an appeasement to the god of this dark religion... October 31st was a feast, celebrated to their god of death, Samhain."(81)
There are several problems here: First, there was not one "god of ...dark religion" in Celtic mythology. Celtic mythology was pantheistic: They recognized many Gods and Goddesses.
Secondly, Samhain was not the "god of death" of the Celts. This is another myth that usually surfaces around Halloween in some Christian publications. The urban legend goes on to suggest that this is who the Celts named the festival of Samhain after. It is likely that this idea was taken from Ray Bradbury's short story "Halloween Tree," which he wrote in 1973. In it Bradbury creates a God of death named Samhain. Bradbury demonstrates in this book that he actually does have a grasp of what the Samhain festival represented to the ancient Celts, but he has obviously named this character after the festival, rather than the other way around. What makes Samhain even less likely as a God of death is the fact that we know who the Celtic Gods of the dead were: Gwynn ap Nudd for the British, Bile or Donn for the Irish and Beli or Arawn for the Welsh.
I have seen the name Samhain attributed to an ancient Aryan deity, Samana. Barbara Walker describes Samana as "'the Leveller, or the Grim Reaper, leader of ancestral ghosts."(82) Walker relates Samana to the Biblical figure of Samuel, who she identifies with the Semitic deity Samael, which she calls an underworld god. Samael is identified in other texts as either a Christian angel or demon. Walker further points out that in Lithuania, there was a New Year's feast on November 1 honouring "Zimiennik (Samanik;Samana)."(83)
Others have told me that Samhain comes from "Sama Teine," meaning "fires of Sama," Sama being a pre- Dridic Carbirian (ie Samothracian) Goddess of death and rebirth(84). "Teine" is certainly the Celtic word for "fires." You find it in the name of the May Day festival: "Beltaine" ("fires of Bel"). But if this definition is correct, then one would expect the name to be "Samteine." For that matter, why would one Celtic festival be named for a Celtic deity (Bel: a Celtic solar god) and another after an ancient Samothracian or Aryan one? If this is the case, then it is an exceptional case, since two of the other Greater Sabbats are named after Celtic deities (Lughnasad, Beltaine) the other, Imbolc, having a Celtic name relating to the season.
In fact there is a Celtic God named Samhain. He is a lesser Irish deity, of the Tuatha De Danaan, and can be found in the Leabhar Gabhala Eireann ("Book of the Conquest of Ireland"), more commonly known as the "Book of Invasions." Samhain (sometimes translated as Sawan) is the brother of Cian (a healer God, father of the solar God Lugh Lamfada and son of the God of medicine Dian Cecht) and Goibhniu (the blacksmith God). As is typical with many Celtic deities, we know very little about Samhain. In the Leabhar Gabhala Eireann, Cian owned a cow named Glas Gaibhnenn, which he left in the care of his brother Samhain. The evil Fomorii leader Balor appeared to Samhain as a little red headed boy and tricked Samhain into parting with the cow, taking it to his fortress on Tory Island. Cian pursued Balor and rescued it. In the process Cian seduced Balor's daughter Ethlinn and she later gave birth to the god Lugh. There is no evidence in this story or elsewhere to suggest that Samhain was another lord of death or the afterlife.
Is it still possible that the festival was named after the God Samhain in the Leabhar Gabhala Eireann? We cannot say for sure, but I have a theory: Cows were used by the early Celts as a currency, the worth of things being measured in head of cattle. For this reason, much of Irish Celtic mythology concerns cattle raids, like the classic Tain Bo Culaigne ("The Cattle Raid of Cooley") and the Tain Bo Fraoch ("The Cattle Raid of Fraoch"). The festival of Samhain was the time that the pastoral Celts culled the herds, killing off all but the cattle essential for next year's breeding and salting the meat to see them through the winter. So it is not unlikely that Samhain, the guardian of the cattle, was considered an appropriate deity to name this day after.
There is no evidence that the Druids cut out hearts in sacrificial ceremonies like some ancient South and Central American religious groups used to. And while some ancient reports from sources such as the Roman conquerors suggested that the Druids performed sacrifices, they did not accuse them of "sexual molestations." This is clearly speculation on the part of Exodus.
The Exodus article continues by saying that "This was also the night that all the crops were gathered and all unharvested crops were abandoned because Pooka, a nocturnal hobgoblin and tormentor of humans, was thought to destroy the rest."(85) One would hope that all of the crops would be gathered long before October 31. It isn't very likely that the ancient Celts would have been out collecting all their crops in one night by torchlight. What has happened here is that Exodus has misinterpreted the old custom connected to Samhain regarding spirits called "Pucas" that I mentioned earlier in Part I (note the correct spelling). One of the customs connected to Halloween is that any crops not harvested at Samhain were either beleived to be blasted by the Pucas or to be the property of the Pucas. The term "Puca" first appeared in Anglo Saxon usage, referring to mischievous spirits or the fairy folk. Its Middle English equivalent was "puke." It is likely that this custom is less ancient than Exodus is suggesting here, because there are no "Pucas" mentioned in Celtic mythology. In fact the legends of "Pucas" were probably brought over by the Danish invaders, whose called them by their Old Norse name: "Puki". In Wales "Puca" became "Pwcca". A Puca appears in Shakespeare's play Midsummer's Night Dream as the character Puck.
Exodus tries to validate what they are saying about Halloween by listing reports of teenagers performing Satanic rituals and sacrificing animals in the San Antonio area in 1986. One local teen allegedly described to police how a 6 month old baby was sacrificed on the northwest side of San Antonio. Exodus further reports a rumour that a 13 year old virgin female was to be sacrificed in the San Marcos area.(86) Typically, no names, specific dates or other details that would allow corroboration of these claim are provided. Exodus does not state whether these "reports" were ever corroborated or prosecuted.
This is followed by a story of an unidentified "Adult Survivor (one who has come out of a coven now with Exodus S.A. (sic))."(87) She states:
"...in 1986 a one year old male child was stripped of his skin and his heart was then offered to Satan, the god of the Samhain ritual. This baby was my son, the sacrifice of whom I was forced to watch. The baby's body was then tied in my arms and we were buried together. After a while I was brought up and released. This was all to celebrate Samhain or Halloween, and for the past two years I've been seeking both my spiritual and emotional release from the terrors of that night."(88)
Again, no details that would allow corroboration. I wonder why it is that if this person has really been through this and has really become "one of the good guys," they have not gone to the police and reported this homicide. If it had really happened you would think that Exodus would be eager to report specific details, as this would surely be the kind of evidence that would prove their point. Time and time again in my series you will see uncorroborated examples of this sort.
Following this Exodus states that "Police investigators estimate there are 40,000 to 60,000 Satanic ritual murders in the US every year."(89) Exodus doesn't identify these "police investigators." In fact these statistics didn't originate with a police investigator at all. The person who is responsible for them is Dr. Al Carlisle of the Utah State Prison System. Carlisle arrived at these figures by estimating the number of Satanists and multiplying this by the estimated number of times that these Satanist would commit human sacrifices during the calendar year.(90) Carlisle hasn't ever said that he has any proof that this is happening, nor has he make any attempt to study further to see if the homicide statistics supported his estimates. They do not. The FBI reported that roughly 20,000 homicides occurred in the US each year at the time of Carlisle's estimates.(91) Carlisle is expecting us to believe that over twice as many are actually occurring and that half of them aren't reported. If this is so then the law enforcement agencies in the United States must be incredibly inept. If we assume that the number of people sacrificed is 50,000 people a year, then this number is just slightly less than the total number of Americans killed in Vietnam during the entire Vietnam war. Nearly everyone in the United States over the age of forty knows somebody who died in the Vietnam war, or at least someone who knew someone who died. But it is virtually impossible to find anyone whose relative or friend was ritually sacrificed by Satanists.
Exodus concludes this tract on Halloween by recommending alternative Halloween celebrations suggested by Michael Warnke.
Why is Exodus trying so hard to convince us that there is a huge Satanic conspiracy out there? The answer can be found in the following statement, taken from the bottom of the aforementioned investigator's list: "We believe the only way to break the spiritual and emotional bondage of the occult is to turn to Jesus Christ for grace and forgiveness."(92) The answer then is that if they can convince you that there is a Satanic problem and that they are the solution, then they will have recruited another member for their congregation. In other words, they are trying to scare you into their pews.
Article ID: 4746
Age Group: Adult
Days Up: 5,031
Times Read: 7,222
Location: Surrey, British Columbia
Bio: Kerr Cuhulain the author of this article, is known to the mundane world as Detective Constable Charles Ennis. Ennis, a former child abuse investigator, is the author of several articles on child abuse investigation that appeared in Law & Order Magazine. Better known to the Pagan community by his Wiccan name, Kerr Cuhulain, Ennis was the first Wiccan police officer to go public about his beliefs 28 years ago. Kerr is now the Preceptor General of Officers of Avalon. Kerr went on to write four books: The Law Enforcement Guide to Wicca (Horned Owl Publishing), Wiccan Warrior and Full Contact Magick: A Book of Shadows for the Wiccan Warrior. (Llewellyn Publications), as well as a book based on this series: Witch Hunts: Out of the Broom Closet (Spiral Publishing).
Email Kerr: firstname.lastname@example.org
Other Articles: Kerr Cuhulain has posted 182 additional articles- View them?
Other Listings: To view ALL of my listings: Click HERE
Email Kerr Cuhulain... (Yes! I have opted to receive invites to Pagan events, groups, and commercial sales)
Web Site Content (including: text - graphics - html - look & feel)
Copyright 1997-2016 The Witches' Voice Inc. All rights reserved
Note: Authors & Artists retain the copyright for their work(s) on this website.
Unauthorized reproduction without prior permission is a violation of copyright laws.
Website structure, evolution and php coding by Fritz Jung on a Macintosh G5.
Any and all personal political opinions expressed in the public listing sections (including, but not restricted to, personals, events, groups, shops, Wrenâ€™s Nest, etc.) are solely those of the author(s) and do not reflect the opinion of The Witchesâ€™ Voice, Inc. TWV is a nonprofit, nonpartisan educational organization.
Sponsorship: Visit the Witches' Voice Sponsor Page for info on how you
can help support this Community Resource. Donations ARE Tax Deductible.
The Witches' Voice carries a 501(c)(3) certificate and a Federal Tax ID.
Mail Us: The Witches' Voice Inc., P.O. Box 341018, Tampa, Florida 33694-1018 U.S.A.
of The World
NOTE: The essay on this page contains the writings and opinions of the listed author(s) and is not necessarily shared or endorsed by the Witches' Voice inc.
The Witches' Voice does not verify or attest to the historical accuracy contained in the content of this essay.
All WitchVox essays contain a valid email address, feel free to send your comments, thoughts or concerns directly to the listed author(s).