Author: Kerr Cuhulain
Posted: March 29th. 2003
Times Viewed: 25,985
All of the myths that I've shown you so far have been assembled on various information sites created by evangelical Christians. One of the best examples of such a collection by an information ministry is the "End-Time Deliverance Ministry" web site of Stan and Elizabeth Madrak of Jackson, Mississippi. One of the reasons that I want to show it to you is that it is such a rich source of misinformation. The Madraks's web site at demonbuster.com is a compilation of information from various sources, each of whom has picked up on the urban legends that I have told you about so far. This will demonstrate once again how urban legends are spread from one person to another. Half of the materials listed on the Demonbusters site is from the deliverance manuals of Gene and Earling Moody, who have themselves obtained their information from other sources. An examination of the Madrak's site will show you how the influence of the myths that we have examined so far has expanded into the evangelical community. An indication of how far it has expanded may be gained from a claim on the Madrak's site that as of January 9, 2003, 1,040,000 people had visited their web site. That is a lot of people that have been exposed to the misinformation presented there.
The title of the Madrak's web site indicates their preoccupation with demons. For example, on one page of their site they warn us that "The eye gate and the ear gate are doorways for demons to use when we look at and listen to ungodly things." Later I'll show you how they apply the title "demon" to all kinds of common things. First I'd like to show you some of the folklore about demons so that you can more easily see how people like the Madraks come up with their own paranoid interpretation of it.
Demon first appeared in the English language circa 1200 CE in Layamon's Chronicle of Britain. It comes from the Greek word "daimon", meaning "a lesser deity", "a spirit", or "one's genius", and originally could refer to a spirit who was good or bad. It was used by authors such as Homer in almost the same fashion as the word "theos" ("god"). The difference was that "theos" referred to the personality of the deity and "daimon" the deity's activity. Any unexpected occurrences which could not be attributed to a particular deity were attributed to a daimon. Eventually a daimon became known as a power controlling man's fate, and it was believed that everyone had one, which is why one of it's meanings is "one's genius". In The Magus, Barrett states that "every man hath a threefold good demon", a concept very close to the original Greek idea.
By Hesiod's time the belief that spirits of the dead became demons had begun. Demons were believed to be more powerful than humans but less powerful than the Gods. It was probably this belief that led the Christians to associate demons with the fallen angels in their mythology.
Another influence was the Zoroastrian concept of a hierarchy of evil daevas (devils) commanded by the God Angra Mainyu (later called Ahriman). The daevas were in constant battle with Ahura Mazda, the Good Lord, later known as Ormazd.
The Hebrew word for demons is "shedim". They were also referred to as "se'irim" ("hairy demons"). These two terms were commonly applied by the Hebrews to foreign gods. Their leader was Satan, Belial, Beelzebub or Mastema. Later additions to this list included Lucifer, Mammon, Asmodeus, Leviathan and Belphegor.
In common modern Christian usage, the word demon refers to an evil spirit. In 1612 CE Father Sebastien Michaelis claimed to have communicated with a demon named Balberith during an exorcism of a nun in Aix En Provence. Balberith listed a number of demons which Michaelis published in his book Admirable History. Michaelis listed three hierarchies of demons. Since it was believed that these were fallen angels the categories within these hierarchies bore the same names as those of the angelic hosts:
Beelzebub, Leviathan, Asmodeus
Keep this in mind as I show you the contents of the Madrak's Demonbusters site, since most of what you are about to see doesn't fit into this list at all.
So now that we have a better idea of where the ideas about demons came from, let's look at the Demonbusters web site. On a page on this site with the title "Charismatic Witchcraft", the Madrak's state that "We have no right to control others! God gave us a free will and even He will not try to control us! Therefore, we enter into agreement with Satan and his demons when we attempt to control others, and we are practicing witchcraft!" "Witchcraft," they go on to tell us, "is the practice of trying to control others for personal gain." These are interesting statements given the activity that the Madraks are obviously engaging in on this web site. They are attempting to use this site to control what people think about subjects like Witchcraft and demons. They obviously want to influence people to become Christians like them.
The Madraks make an even more interesting statement in a disclaimer which is printed at the bottom of each of the pages on their web site:
"THERE IS NO HATE, MALICE, RACISM, ETC. ON THIS SITE. THESE ARE SINS IN THE EYES OF GOD, AND ARE ALSO DEMONS. THE BIBLE MAKES IT CLEAR THAT SIN CANNOT GET INTO HEAVEN."
I'm sure that they've put this disclaimer on each page due to the criticism that must be leveled at them about the content of their site. Elsewhere on their site, under the caption "Sins of the Nationalities" the Madraks state:
"We are affected by the sins of our nationalities, languages, cultures, customs, traditions and creeds; in other words, the sins of the nations. For example, America's abortions has cursed this nation and everyone that is an American; we are cursed with the sin of innocent blood."
Much of the Demonbusters web site is given to prayers that the Madraks claim will free you from demonic influence. This site includes many lists of occult practices that the Madraks believe the Bible prohibits. One of the influences that they consider demonic is powerful women. Demonbusters is definitely not a feminist site. They make statements like:
"Queen Jezebel was a prime example of controlling others. A Jezebelic woman is actually practicing witchcraft as she tries to control her family. Charismatic witches are Jezebels."
"The woman is the weaker vessel. God set up a system to protect women. When they are not under God's covering, they are attacked by Satan. A lot of modern women today do not think they need a covering."
The Madraks also attempt to discredit most other denominations of Christianity on the grounds that these other denominations have been infiltrated by demons. On a page on the Demonbusters web site with the title "Depth of Satan" they have a section on the deception of the church in which they state:
"Satan is the great deceiver of humanity. Unfortunately, he has also deceived the church. He has taught them to omit the Power of God. Most churches deny the Power of God. Christians will be defeated until they use the Power of God. There are top notch Christians in the churches today who are under mind-control, including those in Christian leadership; they have taken over our pulpits. Solomon, one of the greatest men of faith, backslide [sic] and became one of the greatest Satanists of all history. If the Body of Christ is to attain fullness, we need to weed out the hidden terrible cancer that is consuming the Body from within. Our minds are under a constant assault and manipulation by those who control things. This effect has caused vast numbers of spiritual deaths by religious deceptions of mind control and brainwashing such as reincarnation and spiritism using white, grey and black propaganda. Satanic programming has seriously damaged the reputation of Christians.
The Madrak's label non-Christian religions as false religions, writing them off by claiming that:
"Since you are not worshiping God, you become open to deception and demonic attack. Even non-Christian organizations, such as humanism, also have religious connotations. There is a lot of religious error even in Christian organizations by anyone that does not follow the whole Bible."
One of the references that the Madrak's use for this Demonbusters web site is the book Folk Beliefs Of The Southern Negro, written in 1926 by Newbell Niles Puckett, Ph.D. Another is the 1996 book Breaking Strong Holds in the African-American Family - Strategies for Spiritual Warfare by Clarence Walker, published by Zondervan Publishing House. The Madraks summarize the information from these in a section with the title "walls of argument." In this section I found one of the most negative portrayals of African Americans that I have encountered, including awful stereotypes of "blacks":
"Black Men: You can't trust black women. Black women are mean, spiteful, and they use you. Women are only good for having babies and cooking. You have to slap a woman around every now and then. You have to love them and leave them.
"Black Women: all black men are dogs. Women must take charge and never let a man control them. I can't live without this man. He beats me, but he's a good man.
Black Youth: My parents don't deserve obedience.
"Morality and Character
"Black Men: It's all right to have more than one woman. Drugs and alcohol are not that bad. The only thing that is important is what you do for yourself.
"Black Women: You've got to sleep with a man in order to get him.
Black Youth: Everybody else is doing it and so can I. I will do whatever I want. I will hurt others before I hurt myself. I have to do whatever to look cool to my friends and I have to have sex to be accepted by my homeys.
"Black Men: I am God. The Bible is the white man's religion. Islam is the black man's religion and the Masons are a good thing.
"Black Women: Following my horoscope is all right to engage in and to use to find a mate. Eastern Star is a good thing. Islam is the black man's religion. The church is full of hypocrites. Christianity is a crutch for weak black folks. The Masons are a good thing. I go to church, but I need some stuff from the occult shop too.
Black Youth: There is no God."
This is followed by a prayer which is meant to be used by a "black" for deliverance:
"I command the spirits of distrust, meanness, spitefulness, physical abuse, unfaithfulness, control, disobedience, adultery, fornication, drug addiction, alcoholism, murder, hate, horoscopes, Eastern Star, Islam, hypocrisy, and Masonry to leave me in the Name of Jesus Christ."
Note how Walker and the Madraks have included the reference to Freemasonry that we saw Schnoebelen write into his fantastic tales back in chapter 5, adding a reference to Islam as well. The Madraks "recommend that you obtain [Walker's] book."
Later, in a section on the Demonbusters web site on "Exposing Caribbean Witchcraft", the Madraks speak of "Breaking the Willie Lynch Curse":
"[The Willie Lynch Curse] is very powerful and apparently was inspired by Satan and his demons. You can see these characteristics in the Black Race of people today. This could be the very reason why so many are on welfare today. The curse must be broken off your blood line. Today with the use of drugs, fear, distrust, envy and murders, we can see the effects of these terrible curses. The Lord gave the revelation of the Willie Lynch curse to a friend of ours. After breaking this curse, she felt a release. Others have commented that they too have felt a release from this curse."
The Madraks go on to tell us of William Lynch's book Let's Make A Slave: The Origin and Development of a Social Being Called The Negro, which outlined the methods that he had used to control the slaves he owned. Lynch was a slave owner on the banks of the James River in 1712. The practice of lynching is named for him. The Madraks tell us that Lynch's methods included curses which keep the "Black Race... in bondage today". The Madraks state that "These methods could have only come from Satan himself." They advise people of the "Black Race" to say the following prayer:
"Lord Jesus Christ, I forgive Willie Lynch and all those involved in slave trade and slave use throughout time whether in the Black or White Race. I forgive those who treat the Black Race as slaves today. I forgive all who want to lynch me personally, ministerially and business-wise today. I pray that you would forgive them and bless them with all spiritual blessings, especially salvation. In the Name of Jesus Christ, I break the curse of Willie Lynch off me and my bloodline going back to 1712 and earlier. I now break all curses placed on me by those involved in slavery and those who treat me like a slave. I command the demons restore to me and my family everything that they have stolen from us. I command this in the name of Jesus Christ, my Savior, Lord and Master. Amen. I now command every demon whose legal right has been taken away by this prayer to leave me. I command the spirits of drug addiction, fear, distrust, envy, murder, control, physical abuse, frozen psychic, demonic independence, mental weakness, lynching spirit, vigilante spirit and related spirits to leave. I do this by the power and blood of Jesus Christ, and the authority invested in me by being a Christian."
The rest of the Madrak's web site is as bad as this or worse.
Another of the principle influences on the Madrak's web site is Brotherhood of Darkness by Dr. Stanley Monteith, published by Hearthstone Publishing. On a web page with the title "Brotherhood of Darkness" they begin by telling us that "God and Satan are involved in a cosmic struggle for the souls of mankind". They complain about the low number of Christians registered to vote, "moral depravity" and other societal ills. They allege that Christians are being persecuted and that we are the victims of deception practiced upon us by the media, the government and conservative organizations. Then they begin their attack on "the occult".
The Madraks begin by claiming that "The Ancient Magi, the Adepts of the Mystery Religions, the followers of various religions, and many other organizations worshiped Lucifer." They claim that this "Mystery Religion" is "a spiritual movement that involves people of all races and religions including some apostate Jews, with the exception of the Jewish race as a whole." From this they go on to point out that the US dollar bill has an "occult emblem" on it: The Great Seal of the United States. The Madrak's claims that one of the Latin phrases on the reverse side of this seal,"Novus Ordo Seclorum", translates as "The New Secular Order". I pointed out back in chapter 5 when we saw Marquis making a similar reference to the Great Seal that the correct translation should be "A New Order of the Ages." The Madrak's also point out that the date that the Great Seal was created was "1776, the year the Illuminati was formed." While this was indeed the year that the Illuminati was founded, it is only a coincidence that 1776 was also the year that the US was founded. The Madraks also point out that the eye over the pyramid on the reverse side of the Great Seal "is a symbol representing spiritual vision that was used in many secret societies, including the Rosicrucians and the Freemasons." Note how they have now brought the Rosicrucians into the discussion, just like we saw Marquis do back in chapter 5. A few paragraphs later the Madraks contradict themselves by claiming that "During a thirty-year period, the United States Supreme Court removed God, prayer, and the Bible from our schools in an effort to destroy the Christian heritage of our nation." A moment ago they were claiming that the founding fathers wanted a "new secular order".
Next the Madraks claim that 13 unnamed individuals plan world finances in secret meetings in Switzerland. From this they go after the New Age, claiming that "Their plan was laid out in the New Age Magazine: 'God's plan is dedicated to the unification of all races, religions and creeds. This plan, dedicated to the new order of things, is to make all things new - a new nation, a new race, a new civilization and a new religion, a nonsectarian religion that has already been recognized and called the religion of The Great Light'. This is the secret of the Ages." They don't identify the New Age magazine that they are speaking of: The closest match to this title that I am aware of is New Age Voice Magazine, which is about New Age music.
The Madraks then claim that one of the effects of the New Age has been that "Multiplied millions of people have been murdered and millions of women raped by various nations." They offer no evidence and make no further statements to support this claim. They go on to claim that tax-exempt foundations, wealthy people and American corporations have financed evil and bought politicians. I am certain that one could find examples of this, but there are no examples or evidence provided in the Madrak's web site. They also claim that the New Age "created and prolonged World War I" and that "World Core Curriculum is being used in schools throughout the world to introduce students to occult thought."
The Madrak's then return to their attack on Freemasonry, claiming that the beliefs of the Mystery Religions were passed down through the Templars, the Rosicrucians and the Illuminati to the Masons. This is a variation of the urban legend about "Mystery Religions" originating in Babylon that we found in the works of Woodrow and Hislop back in chapter 5. The Madraks also claim that a Masonic architect designed the street plans for Washington, DC, and that "Every federal building in our nation's Capitol bears a Masonic plaque." They finish this web page by taking a logical leap and announcing that "UFO's are probably demonic manifestations, and aliens are either demons or fallen angels." At the end of this chapter we'll see them making more detailed claims about demonic UFOs.
As you've probably guessed from the references to Freemasons, one of the principle influences on this site are the books Blood on the Doorposts: An Advanced Course In Spiritual Warfare and Wicca: Satan's Little White Lie, by William and Sharon Schnoebelen, who you encountered back in chapter 5.
The influence of Bill Schnoebelen can be found on a web page in the Demonbusters web site with the title "PARAPHERNALIA - TOOLS - SYMBOLS WICCA - SATAN'S LITTLE WHITE LIE". This lists common Wiccan ritual implements, spelling one of them wrong ("Boleen" instead of "Bolline"), and then proclaims that "Wicca symbols are similar to Satan worship". We've seen many examples of symbols such as the pentagram that are used by Wiccans and Satanists (and others), though both groups interpret them differently. The inference here is that Wiccans are Satanists, which is not true.
The Madrak's reinforce this in another section of their site which borrows the title of one of Schnoebelen's books: "Wicca: Satan's Little White Lie". On this page they criticize two of the spiritual paths that Schnoebelen tried before turning fundamentalist Christian, censuring them both. First they list what they claim to be characteristics of Wiccans. Obviously they got this list from Schnoebelen, which includes:
"A shamanic worldview similar to animism (the belief that all objects have life and souls) which includes strong ecological overtones and often an openness to some drugs."
NOTE: There is that anti-ecology element that we saw Schnoebelen introduce in his ravings. There also is that myth that we keep encountering about the prevalence of drug use in Wiccan ritual.
"A do your own thing morality, as long as it doesn't hurt anybody. This often included free sexual activity at least within the group."
NOTE: This is that skewed interpretation of the Wiccan Rede that we've repeatedly encountered in the claims of individuals that I have discussed in my book.
"An Aquarian view of human destiny - the seed bed from which was grown much of the New Age movement - the notion that persons can evolve spiritually through their own efforts and ultimately attain either enlightenment or even godhood."
NOTE: In other words any form of spirituality other than that presented by the Madrak's is in their view prohibited. They want people to feel powerless without their Christian church.
The Madraks then announce that "Witches Do Worship Satan" and list what they claim to be the "resemblances between the typical Wiccan god and the figure of Satan". While the use of the word "typical" indicates that they acknowledge that Wiccans use many aspects of male deity, their list makes it sound as if there is only one male God recognized in Wiccan ritual:
"Both are lords of death and the source of death.
"Both rule in an underworld kingdom of some sort.
"Both represent bestiality and untrammeled lasciviousness.
"Both are known as Lucifer in some circles.
"Both are believed to be the source of Light.
"Both demand commitment by oaths and covenants.
"Both seek to draw their worshipers away from the Bible's God."
This gives the impression that all of the aspects of male divinity that Wiccans work with in their ritual are lords of death named Lucifer who rule underground kingdoms . Wiccans utilize many aspects of male divinity, most of whom have nothing to do with death or subterranean realms at all. Here is that drivel about Lucifer again that we have seen so many people use since we saw Schnoebelen voicing it. None of the aspects of male divinity in Wiccan practice demand oaths and covenants.
The Madrak's then go on to list their objections to the other religious path that Schnoebelen rejected: The Roman Catholic Church. The Madrak's tell us that "A Catholic can be a Christian but the vast majority are just religious." Here are some of the characteristics that they claim that Catholics have in common with modern Pagans:
"Both teach salvation through ritual acts and good works."
NOTE: Salvation is a Christian concept which Wiccans do not subscribe to.
"Both have a god and a goddess (Mary) figure in their pantheon.
"Both have a slain and risen god who dies and is reborn in a seasonal cycle of ritual dramas.
"Both have magic or thaumaturgy (Transubstantiation in the Mass) as central elements in their theology.
"Both make extensive use of incense, statues, candles and ceremonial robes in their devotions."
NOTE: These last four points are essentially correct, though the comment about Transubstantiation makes it seem as if Wiccans practice this too. There is a similar ritual act called "cakes and wine" in Wiccan ritual, but it is not believed to be transformed into the body of Christ as it is in the Catholic ritual.
"Both believe in a kind of second chance after death (Purgatory)."
NOTE: Wiccans believe in that their departed go to the Summerland to rest before being reincarnated. This isn't anything like Purgatory.
"Both believe the rituals of the living can affect the dead."
NOTE: Wiccans don't say prayers for the dead like Catholics do.
"Both believe in rituals of pain and mortification for purification."
NOTE: This is an attempt to associate the practice of scourging in initiation rituals of British Traditions of Wicca (Gardnerian, Alexandrian, and others) with the ritual flagellation practiced by some Christian religious groups in centuries past. The ritual of scourging in Wiccan traditions, accomplished by lightly striking a person with a soft cord, is supposed to symbolize the initiate's understanding that it is sometimes necessary to suffer to learn. This isn't the same as the scourging practiced by Christian sects such as the Flagellants, whose purpose was to mortify the flesh by causing physical injury to themselves.
The Mardrak's conclude this section with miscellaneous comments such as :
"The Sicilian occult society, the Mafia, is Sicilian witchcraft (stregoi)."
NOTE: The Italian traditions of Wicca are indeed called Strega, but it is entirely unrelated to the criminal secret society of the Mafia.
"The Catholic church is such a massive religious jumble of African magic, Roman superstition, Celtic and Slavic paganism, and now even Asian and Native American spirituality. The Catholic church is a combination of Voodoo (African Catholicism), Santeria (Cuban-African Catholicism), Bingo nights (Las Vegas Catholicism), devotions to the Queen of Heaven (Babylonian Catholicism) and to the Black Madonna (Polish-Catholicism), wakes (Irish-Catholicism) and rosaries (Hindu Catholicism)."
All religion, including that practiced by the Madraks, borrows from earlier spiritual paths. The Bible is a perfect example of this. The Vatican would be surprised to hear that Vodou and Santeria are part of the Catholic church. Both of these Afro-Caribbean religions have incorporated elements of Catholicism into their beliefs, but this does not make them Catholic. The comment about the "Queen of Heaven" is a reference to Babylon, which is that urban legend about "Mystery Religions" again.
One of the sections that the Madraks include on their web page, "Demons and Characteristics", borrows the title of Schnoebelen's other book: "Blood on the Doorposts: An Advanced Course in Spiritual Warfare." This commences with a list of "possible demonic access-points- personal sin doorways". This list includes: "Astral Projection, Astrology, Blood Pacts, Channeling, Clairvoyance, Cursing Parents, Divination, Dowsing, Dungeons & Dragons, E.S.P., Eckankar, EST (The Forum), Fetishism, Fortune Telling, Gurdjieff, Homeopathy, Homosexuality, Hypnotism, Incubi or Succubi (Sexual Spirits), I.U.D. (Women Only), Kabalah, Martial Arts, Levitation (Table Tipping), Materialization, New Age, Occult Books, Ouija Board, Pacts With Satan, Palm Reading, Pornography, Psychic Healing, Psychic Surgery, Rosicrucians, Sado-Masochism, Satanism, Seances, Silva Mind Control, Swedenborg, Tarot Cards, Telepathy, Witchcraft, Transcendental Meditation (TM), White or Black Magick, Voodoo (or Santeria, Camdoble, Palo Mayombe)Cults and Aberrant Religious Groups, Anthroposophy (Waldorf Schools), Bahai, Buddhism, Children of God (Family of Love), Christian Science, Freemasonry, Church Universal and Triumphant (Summit Lighthouse), Hinduism, Elizabeth Clare Prophet, Hari Krishna (ISKCON), I AM Movement, Islam, Jehovah's Witnesses, Liberal Theology, Liberal Catholic Church, Lodges (miscellaneous bloodless religions), Mormonism, People's Temple, Process Church, Rastafarianism, Roman Catholicism, Scientology, Spiritualism, Tara Center, Theosophical Society, Unification Church (Moonies), Unitarian Universalists, Unity, Way International, Wicca, Worldwide Church of God, Other Cults."
You've probably noticed by now that the Madraks seem preoccupied with anything to do with sex being "demonic". Remember the titles of Reverend Tim LaHaye's books about Christian sexual practices back in chapter 3? On another page in the Demonbusters web site, "Depth of Satan", the Madraks confirm this when they state:
"The only godly sex is intercourse between legitimate husband and wife. Everything else is demonic. It could include pornography and sexually transmitted diseases. This is a fertile area for demons to play in. It is the strongest drive outside of the drive to live."
(Continued... Go to Part II)
Article ID: 6207
Age Group: Adult
Days Up: 4,176
Times Read: 25,985
Location: Surrey, British Columbia
Bio: Kerr Cuhulain the author of this article, is known to the mundane world as Detective Constable Charles Ennis. Ennis, a former child abuse investigator, is the author of several articles on child abuse investigation that appeared in Law & Order Magazine. Better known to the Pagan community by his Wiccan name, Kerr Cuhulain, Ennis was the first Wiccan police officer to go public about his beliefs 28 years ago. Kerr is now the Preceptor General of Officers of Avalon. Kerr went on to write four books: The Law Enforcement Guide to Wicca (Horned Owl Publishing), Wiccan Warrior and Full Contact Magick: A Book of Shadows for the Wiccan Warrior. (Llewellyn Publications), as well as a book based on this series: Witch Hunts: Out of the Broom Closet (Spiral Publishing).
Email Kerr: firstname.lastname@example.org
Other Articles: Kerr Cuhulain has posted 182 additional articles- View them?
Other Listings: To view ALL of my listings: Click HERE
Email Kerr Cuhulain... (Yes! I have opted to receive invites to Pagan events, groups, and commercial sales)
Web Site Content (including: text - graphics - html - look & feel)
Copyright 1997-2014 The Witches' Voice Inc. All rights reserved
Note: Authors & Artists retain the copyright for their work(s) on this website.
Unauthorized reproduction without prior permission is a violation of copyright laws.
Website structure, evolution and php coding by Fritz Jung on a Macintosh G5.
Any and all personal political opinions expressed in the public listing sections (including, but not restricted to, personals, events, groups, shops, Wrenâ€™s Nest, etc.) are solely those of the author(s) and do not reflect the opinion of The Witchesâ€™ Voice, Inc. TWV is a nonprofit, nonpartisan educational organization.
Sponsorship: Visit the Witches' Voice Sponsor Page for info on how you
can help support this Community Resource. Donations ARE Tax Deductible.
The Witches' Voice carries a 501(c)(3) certificate and a Federal Tax ID.
Mail Us: The Witches' Voice Inc., P.O. Box 341018, Tampa, Florida 33694-1018 U.S.A.
of The World
NOTE: The essay on this page contains the writings and opinions of the listed author(s) and is not necessarily shared or endorsed by the Witches' Voice inc.
The Witches' Voice does not verify or attest to the historical accuracy contained in the content of this essay.
All WitchVox essays contain a valid email address, feel free to send your comments, thoughts or concerns directly to the listed author(s).